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The Gyanvapi Mosque: A Historical and Controversial Monument

The Gyanvapi Mosque, also known as the Gyanvapi Masjid, is a prominent religious site located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. This mosque has a rich history that dates back several centuries and has become a subject of controversy and debate in recent times. In this article, we will explore the origins, significance, and controversies surrounding the Gyanvapi Mosque, shedding light on its historical and cultural importance.

The Origins of the Gyanvapi Mosque

The Gyanvapi Mosque was built in the 17th century by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb on the site of the original Kashi Vishwanath Temple. The temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva, was believed to have been constructed in ancient times and held immense religious significance for Hindus. However, during Aurangzeb’s reign, the temple was destroyed, and the Gyanvapi Mosque was erected in its place.

The name “Gyanvapi” translates to “well of knowledge” in Hindi, and it is derived from the belief that the original temple’s well, which was used for sacred rituals, still exists within the mosque premises. This well is considered to be a sacred source of knowledge and enlightenment.

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The Significance of the Gyanvapi Mosque

The Gyanvapi Mosque holds great religious and historical significance for both Hindus and Muslims. For Muslims, it is a place of worship and a symbol of their faith. The mosque attracts thousands of devotees who come to offer prayers and seek blessings.

On the other hand, for Hindus, the Gyanvapi Mosque site represents the loss of their sacred temple and is a reminder of the destruction of their religious heritage. Many Hindus believe that the mosque was built on the ruins of the original Kashi Vishwanath Temple, which they consider to be one of the holiest sites in Hinduism.


Despite the religious tensions surrounding the site, the Gyanvapi Mosque has also been a center of interfaith harmony, with Hindus and Muslims coexisting peacefully and participating in joint religious ceremonies and festivals.

The Controversies Surrounding the Gyanvapi Mosque

Over the years, the Gyanvapi Mosque has been at the center of several controversies and legal battles. The main point of contention revolves around the demand by some Hindu groups to reclaim the site and rebuild the Kashi Vishwanath Temple.

In 1991, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), a Hindu nationalist organization, filed a petition in the Allahabad High Court seeking permission to reclaim the disputed land and rebuild the temple. The case has been ongoing for decades, with various appeals and counter-appeals being filed by both Hindu and Muslim groups.

The legal battle intensified in 2021 when the Varanasi court ordered a survey of the Gyanvapi Mosque premises by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). The survey aimed to determine whether there were any remnants of the original temple beneath the mosque. The court’s decision sparked protests and debates across the country, with both sides presenting their arguments.


Arguments in Favor of Rebuilding the Temple

  • Hindu groups argue that the Gyanvapi Mosque was built by Aurangzeb after demolishing the original temple, and therefore, it should be returned to its original state.
  • They claim that the mosque’s presence on the site is a constant reminder of the historical injustice done to Hindus and that rebuilding the temple would restore their religious heritage.
  • Some also argue that the mosque’s location in the vicinity of the Kashi Vishwanath Temple is a source of discomfort for Hindu devotees.
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Arguments in Favor of Preserving the Mosque

  • Muslim groups argue that the Gyanvapi Mosque has been a place of worship for centuries and holds deep religious significance for them.
  • They contend that the mosque’s demolition or relocation would be a violation of their religious rights and an attack on their cultural identity.
  • Preservationists argue that the mosque is an architectural marvel and an important historical monument that should be protected for its cultural value.


1. Is the Gyanvapi Mosque open to visitors?

Yes, the Gyanvapi Mosque is open to visitors of all faiths. However, certain areas may be restricted for non-Muslims during prayer times.

Yes, the legal battle over the Gyanvapi Mosque is still ongoing. The Allahabad High Court is currently hearing the case, and its decision will have significant implications for the future of the site.

3. What is the significance of the well within the Gyanvapi Mosque?

The well within the Gyanvapi Mosque is believed to be the original well of the Kashi Vishwanath Temple. It is considered a sacred source of knowledge and enlightenment.

4. How has the Gyanvapi Mosque been a center of interfaith harmony?

Despite the religious tensions surrounding the site, the Gyanvapi Mosque has witnessed Hindus and Muslims coexisting peacefully. Joint religious ceremonies and festivals have been held, fostering interfaith harmony.

5. What is the current status of the Gyanvapi Mosque?

The Gyanvapi Mosque is currently under the control of the Sunni Central Waqf Board, a Muslim religious trust. However, the legal battle over the site’s ownership and future continues.



The Gyanvapi Mosque in Varanasi is a historical and controversial monument that holds immense religious and cultural significance. Built on the site of the original Kashi Vishwanath Temple, the mosque has become a subject of debate and legal battles between Hindu and Muslim groups. While Hindus demand the reconstruction of their sacred temple, Muslims argue for the preservation of the mosque as a place of worship and cultural heritage. The ongoing legal proceedings and the court-ordered survey by the Archaeological Survey of India have further intensified the controversies surrounding the site. The future of the Gyanvapi Mosque remains uncertain, with its fate likely to have far-reaching implications for religious harmony and cultural preservation in India.

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