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The Gyanvapi Mosque: A Historical and Controversial Monument

The Gyanvapi Mosque, also known as the Gyanvapi Masjid, is a prominent religious site located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. This mosque has a rich history that dates back several centuries and has become a subject of controversy and debate in recent times. In this article, we will explore the origins, significance, and controversies surrounding the Gyanvapi Mosque, shedding light on its historical and cultural importance.

The Origins of the Gyanvapi Mosque

The Gyanvapi Mosque was built in the 17th century by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb on the site of the original Kashi Vishwanath Temple. The temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva, was believed to have been constructed in ancient times and held immense religious significance for Hindus. However, during Aurangzeb’s reign, the temple was destroyed, and the Gyanvapi Mosque was erected in its place.

The name “Gyanvapi” translates to “well of knowledge” in Hindi, and it is derived from the belief that the original temple’s well, which was used for sacred rituals, still exists within the mosque premises. This well is considered to be a sacred source of knowledge and enlightenment.

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The Significance of the Gyanvapi Mosque

The Gyanvapi Mosque holds great religious and historical significance for both Hindus and Muslims. For Muslims, it is a place of worship and a symbol of their faith. The mosque attracts thousands of devotees who come to offer prayers and seek blessings.

On the other hand, for Hindus, the Gyanvapi Mosque represents a painful reminder of the destruction of their sacred temple. Many Hindus believe that the mosque was built on the ruins of the original Kashi Vishwanath Temple, which was one of the holiest sites in Hinduism. The temple is believed to be the abode of Lord Shiva, the supreme deity in Hindu mythology.


Despite the religious tensions surrounding the mosque, it has also served as a symbol of religious harmony and coexistence. The city of Varanasi, where the Gyanvapi Mosque is located, is known for its diverse religious heritage, with numerous temples, mosques, and other religious sites coexisting in close proximity.

The Controversies Surrounding the Gyanvapi Mosque

Over the years, the Gyanvapi Mosque has been at the center of several controversies and legal battles. The main point of contention revolves around the demand by some Hindu groups to reclaim the land and rebuild the Kashi Vishwanath Temple.

In 1991, a petition was filed in the Allahabad High Court seeking permission to demolish the mosque and rebuild the temple. The court, however, dismissed the petition, stating that the mosque was a protected monument under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act of 1958.

In 2019, a new petition was filed in the Varanasi civil court seeking permission to conduct a survey of the Gyanvapi Mosque premises to determine whether it was built on the ruins of the original temple. The court rejected the petition, stating that it did not have the jurisdiction to decide on the matter.


The controversies surrounding the Gyanvapi Mosque have sparked heated debates and protests from both Hindu and Muslim communities. While some argue for the restoration of the temple, others advocate for the preservation of the mosque as a historical monument.

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1. Is the Gyanvapi Mosque open to visitors?

Yes, the Gyanvapi Mosque is open to visitors of all faiths. However, certain areas of the mosque may be restricted for non-Muslims during prayer times.

2. Are there any restrictions on photography inside the mosque?

Photography is generally not allowed inside the Gyanvapi Mosque. Visitors are advised to respect the religious sanctity of the place and refrain from taking photographs without permission.

3. What are the measures taken to ensure the security of the Gyanvapi Mosque?

The Gyanvapi Mosque is under the protection of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) and the local police. Security personnel are deployed to ensure the safety and security of the mosque and its visitors.


Yes, there are ongoing legal battles regarding the Gyanvapi Mosque. The matter is currently pending in the Varanasi civil court, and the final decision is yet to be reached.

5. What is the stance of the Indian government on the Gyanvapi Mosque controversy?

The Indian government has maintained a neutral stance on the Gyanvapi Mosque controversy. It has emphasized the need for peaceful coexistence and has urged all parties involved to resolve the issue through dialogue and mutual understanding.


The Gyanvapi Mosque in Varanasi is a historical and controversial monument that has been at the center of religious and legal disputes for many years. While it holds great religious significance for both Hindus and Muslims, it also represents a painful reminder of the destruction of the original Kashi Vishwanath Temple. The controversies surrounding the mosque have sparked debates and protests, with some advocating for the restoration of the temple and others emphasizing the preservation of the mosque as a historical monument. The final resolution of the Gyanvapi Mosque controversy remains uncertain, but it is crucial to approach the issue with respect, understanding, and a commitment to religious harmony.

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