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The Gyanvapi Mosque: A Historical and Controversial Monument

The Gyanvapi Mosque, also known as the Gyanvapi Masjid, is a prominent religious site located in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. This mosque has a rich history that dates back several centuries and has become a subject of controversy and debate in recent times. In this article, we will explore the origins, significance, and controversies surrounding the Gyanvapi Mosque, shedding light on its historical and cultural importance.

The Origins of the Gyanvapi Mosque

The Gyanvapi Mosque was built in the 17th century by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb on the site of the original Kashi Vishwanath Temple. The temple, dedicated to Lord Shiva, was believed to have been constructed in ancient times and held immense religious significance for Hindus. However, during Aurangzeb’s reign, the temple was destroyed, and the Gyanvapi Mosque was erected in its place.

The name “Gyanvapi” translates to “well of knowledge” in Hindi, referring to the sacred well located within the mosque premises. This well is believed to be the only remaining structure from the original Kashi Vishwanath Temple and is considered a symbol of the temple’s past glory.

The Significance of the Gyanvapi Mosque

The Gyanvapi Mosque holds great religious and historical significance for both Hindus and Muslims. For Muslims, it is a place of worship and a symbol of their faith. The mosque attracts thousands of devotees who come to offer prayers and seek blessings.

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On the other hand, for Hindus, the Gyanvapi Mosque represents a painful reminder of the destruction of their sacred temple. Many Hindus believe that the mosque was built on the ruins of the Kashi Vishwanath Temple, which they consider to be one of the holiest sites in Hinduism. The temple is believed to be the abode of Lord Shiva and is considered one of the twelve Jyotirlingas, the most sacred Shiva temples in India.


Despite the religious tensions surrounding the Gyanvapi Mosque, it has also served as a symbol of religious harmony and coexistence. The mosque is located adjacent to the Kashi Vishwanath Temple, and both communities have been living side by side for centuries, fostering a unique blend of cultures and traditions.

The Controversies Surrounding the Gyanvapi Mosque

Over the years, the Gyanvapi Mosque has been at the center of several controversies and legal battles. The main point of contention revolves around the demand by some Hindu groups to reclaim the land and rebuild the Kashi Vishwanath Temple.

In 1991, a petition was filed in the Allahabad High Court seeking permission to demolish the Gyanvapi Mosque and rebuild the temple. The court, however, dismissed the petition, stating that the mosque was a protected monument under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act of 1958.

In 2021, another legal battle emerged when a petition was filed in the Varanasi Civil Court seeking permission to conduct a survey of the Gyanvapi Mosque to determine whether it was built on the ruins of the Kashi Vishwanath Temple. The court rejected the petition, stating that it did not have the jurisdiction to decide on the matter and that it should be taken up by the Allahabad High Court.


The controversies surrounding the Gyanvapi Mosque have sparked heated debates and protests from both Hindu and Muslim communities. While some argue for the restoration of the temple, others advocate for the preservation of the mosque as a historical monument.

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Case Studies and Examples

One of the most notable cases related to the Gyanvapi Mosque is the Ayodhya dispute. The Ayodhya dispute involved a similar conflict between Hindus and Muslims over the Babri Masjid, which was built on the site believed to be the birthplace of Lord Ram. The dispute led to communal riots and violence, culminating in the demolition of the mosque in 1992.

The Ayodhya dispute serves as a cautionary tale, highlighting the potential consequences of unresolved religious conflicts. It is essential to find a peaceful and amicable resolution to the Gyanvapi Mosque controversy to prevent further tensions and maintain communal harmony.


1. Is the Gyanvapi Mosque open to visitors?

Yes, the Gyanvapi Mosque is open to visitors of all faiths. However, certain restrictions may be in place during religious ceremonies or festivals.


2. Can Hindus offer prayers at the Gyanvapi Mosque?

While Hindus are allowed to visit the Gyanvapi Mosque, offering prayers according to Hindu rituals is not permitted within the mosque premises. Hindus usually offer prayers at the adjacent Kashi Vishwanath Temple.

3. What steps have been taken to resolve the Gyanvapi Mosque controversy?

Several attempts have been made to resolve the Gyanvapi Mosque controversy through negotiations and legal proceedings. However, a final resolution is yet to be reached, and the matter remains a subject of ongoing debate.

4. How does the government of India view the Gyanvapi Mosque controversy?

The government of India has taken a neutral stance on the Gyanvapi Mosque controversy, emphasizing the need for a peaceful resolution through dialogue and legal means. The government has also stressed the importance of maintaining communal harmony and respecting the sentiments of all religious communities involved.

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5. What is the future of the Gyanvapi Mosque?

The future of the Gyanvapi Mosque remains uncertain, as the legal battles and controversies surrounding it continue. It is crucial for all stakeholders to engage in constructive dialogue and find a mutually acceptable solution that respects the sentiments of both Hindus and Muslims.



The Gyanvapi Mosque is a historical and controversial monument located in Varanasi, India. Built on the site of the original Kashi Vishwanath Temple, the mosque holds religious significance for Muslims and represents a painful reminder for Hindus. The controversies surrounding the mosque have led to legal battles and protests, highlighting the need for a peaceful resolution. The Gyanvapi Mosque controversy serves as a reminder of the importance of religious harmony and the challenges of preserving historical monuments while respecting the sentiments of different communities.

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