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The Temperature of Kolkata: A Comprehensive Guide

kolkata temperature

kolkata temperature

Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital city of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is a vibrant and bustling metropolis that is known for its rich cultural heritage, historical landmarks, and mouth-watering cuisine. However, one aspect of Kolkata that often goes unnoticed is its unique climate and temperature patterns. In this article, we will delve into the temperature of Kolkata, exploring its seasonal variations, extreme weather events, and the impact of climate change. So, let’s dive in and uncover the fascinating world of Kolkata’s temperature!

The Seasonal Temperature Variations in Kolkata

Kolkata experiences a tropical wet-and-dry climate, characterized by hot and humid summers and mild winters. The city is located in the Gangetic plain, which influences its temperature patterns. Here is a breakdown of the seasonal temperature variations in Kolkata:

Summer (March to May)

Summers in Kolkata are notoriously hot and humid, with temperatures often soaring above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit). The city experiences scorching heatwaves during this period, making it uncomfortable for residents and visitors alike. The humidity levels also remain high, adding to the discomfort. It is advisable to stay hydrated and seek shade or air-conditioned spaces during the peak summer months.

Monsoon (June to September)

The monsoon season brings relief from the sweltering heat of summer. Kolkata receives a significant amount of rainfall during this period, with the monsoon winds bringing moisture from the Bay of Bengal. The average temperature during the monsoon season ranges from 25 to 30 degrees Celsius (77 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit). The cityscape transforms into a lush green paradise, and the rainfall rejuvenates the city’s water bodies.

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Autumn (October to November)

Autumn in Kolkata is characterized by pleasant weather, with temperatures ranging from 25 to 30 degrees Celsius (77 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit). The humidity levels decrease, and the city experiences clear skies and gentle breezes. This is considered an ideal time to visit Kolkata, as the weather is neither too hot nor too cold.

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Winter (December to February)

Winters in Kolkata are mild and comfortable, with temperatures ranging from 15 to 25 degrees Celsius (59 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit). The city experiences cool and dry weather during this period, making it a popular time for outdoor activities and festivals. However, it is advisable to carry a light jacket or sweater, especially during the evenings, as the temperature can drop further.

Extreme Weather Events in Kolkata

While Kolkata generally experiences a predictable climate, it is not immune to extreme weather events. Here are some notable instances of extreme weather in the city:

Cyclones

Kolkata is located in a region prone to cyclones, particularly during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Cyclone Amphan, which struck Kolkata in May 2020, was one of the most devastating cyclones in recent history. It caused widespread destruction, including damage to infrastructure, uprooted trees, and power outages. The city is constantly working on improving its disaster preparedness to mitigate the impact of such events.

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Heatwaves

Heatwaves are a common occurrence in Kolkata, especially during the summer months. The combination of high temperatures and humidity levels can be dangerous, leading to heat-related illnesses. The city authorities take measures to provide relief to vulnerable populations, such as setting up cooling centers and distributing drinking water. It is crucial for residents to stay informed about heatwave warnings and take necessary precautions.

The Impact of Climate Change on Kolkata’s Temperature

Like many other cities around the world, Kolkata is also experiencing the effects of climate change. Rising global temperatures and changing weather patterns have a direct impact on the city’s temperature. Here are some key ways in which climate change is affecting Kolkata:

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Increased Average Temperature

Over the past few decades, Kolkata has witnessed a gradual increase in its average temperature. This rise in temperature is attributed to the greenhouse gas emissions and the urban heat island effect. The urban heat island effect occurs when urban areas experience higher temperatures compared to surrounding rural areas due to human activities and the concentration of buildings and concrete.

More Frequent and Intense Heatwaves

Climate change has led to an increase in the frequency and intensity of heatwaves in Kolkata. The combination of high temperatures and humidity levels during heatwaves poses a significant threat to public health. It is crucial for the city to implement measures to adapt to these changing conditions and protect vulnerable populations.

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Changing Rainfall Patterns

Climate change has also resulted in changing rainfall patterns in Kolkata. While the city receives a significant amount of rainfall during the monsoon season, there has been an observed shift in the timing and intensity of rainfall. This can have implications for agriculture, water availability, and overall ecosystem health.

Q&A

1. What is the hottest month in Kolkata?

The hottest month in Kolkata is typically May, with temperatures often exceeding 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit).

2. Does Kolkata experience snowfall?

No, Kolkata does not experience snowfall. The city’s climate is tropical, and snowfall is extremely rare in this region.

3. How does Kolkata prepare for extreme weather events?

Kolkata has a disaster management plan in place to prepare for extreme weather events. This includes early warning systems, evacuation plans, and the establishment of relief centers to provide assistance to affected individuals.

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4. Is Kolkata vulnerable to flooding?

Yes, Kolkata is vulnerable to flooding, particularly during the monsoon season. The city’s low-lying areas and inadequate drainage systems contribute to the risk of flooding.

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5. How can individuals contribute to mitigating the impact of climate change in Kolkata?

Individuals can contribute to mitigating the impact of climate change in Kolkata by adopting sustainable practices such as reducing energy consumption, using public transportation or cycling, and promoting green spaces in the city.

Summary

Kolkata’s temperature is characterized by hot and humid summers, mild winters, and a significant amount of rainfall during the monsoon season. The city experiences extreme weather events such as cyclones and heatwaves, which pose challenges to its residents. Additionally, climate change is impacting Kolkata’s temperature, leading to increased average temperatures, more frequent heatwaves, and changing rainfall patterns. It is crucial for the city to adapt to these changing conditions and implement measures to protect its residents and environment. By understanding the temperature patterns and the impact of climate change, we can work towards creating a more resilient and sustainable Kolkata.

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