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The Temperature of Kolkata: A Comprehensive Analysis

kolkata temperature

kolkata temperature

Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital city of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is a vibrant metropolis with a rich cultural heritage and a significant historical background. One of the key factors that influence the daily lives of its residents is the temperature. In this article, we will delve into the various aspects of Kolkata’s temperature, including its seasonal variations, extreme weather events, and the impact of climate change. By the end, you will have a comprehensive understanding of the temperature patterns in Kolkata and their implications.

The Seasonal Variations in Kolkata’s Temperature

Kolkata experiences a tropical wet-and-dry climate, characterized by hot and humid summers and mild winters. The city lies in the Gangetic plain, which contributes to its unique weather patterns. Let’s explore the seasonal variations in Kolkata’s temperature:

1. Summer (March to May)

During the summer months, Kolkata witnesses scorching temperatures, with the mercury often soaring above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit). The humidity levels are also high, making the weather extremely uncomfortable. The city experiences heatwaves, which can have adverse effects on human health. It is crucial for residents to take necessary precautions, such as staying hydrated and avoiding direct exposure to the sun.

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2. Monsoon (June to September)

The monsoon season brings relief from the sweltering heat of summer. Kolkata receives a significant amount of rainfall during this period, with an average annual precipitation of around 1,582 millimeters (62.28 inches). The monsoon showers rejuvenate the city, bringing respite from the scorching temperatures. However, heavy rainfall can also lead to waterlogging and flooding in certain areas, causing inconvenience to the residents.

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3. Autumn (October to November)

Autumn in Kolkata is characterized by pleasant weather, with temperatures ranging between 25 to 30 degrees Celsius (77 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit). The humidity levels decrease, making it an ideal time to explore the city’s outdoor attractions. The autumn season is also marked by various festivals, such as Durga Puja, which adds to the vibrancy of Kolkata.

4. Winter (December to February)

Winter in Kolkata is relatively mild compared to other parts of India. The temperatures range between 12 to 23 degrees Celsius (54 to 73 degrees Fahrenheit). While the city does not experience extreme cold, the humidity levels remain high, making the weather feel colder than it actually is. Residents often enjoy outdoor activities during this season, such as picnics in the city’s parks.

Extreme Weather Events in Kolkata

Kolkata is no stranger to extreme weather events, which can have a significant impact on the city and its residents. Let’s take a look at some of the notable occurrences:

1. Cyclones

Kolkata is located in a region prone to cyclones, particularly during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods. Cyclones bring strong winds, heavy rainfall, and storm surges, posing a threat to life and property. The city has witnessed devastating cyclones in the past, such as the 2009 Cyclone Aila, which caused widespread destruction and loss of lives.

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2. Heatwaves

Heatwaves are a recurring phenomenon in Kolkata, especially during the summer months. High temperatures combined with high humidity levels can lead to heat-related illnesses and even fatalities. It is crucial for the city’s administration to take proactive measures to mitigate the impact of heatwaves, such as providing cooling centers and spreading awareness about heatstroke prevention.

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3. Flooding

Kolkata is susceptible to flooding, particularly during the monsoon season. Heavy rainfall, coupled with inadequate drainage systems, often leads to waterlogging in low-lying areas. This not only disrupts daily life but also poses health hazards due to the contamination of water sources. The city’s authorities need to invest in robust infrastructure to tackle the issue of flooding effectively.

The Impact of Climate Change on Kolkata’s Temperature

Climate change is a global phenomenon that affects regions across the world, including Kolkata. The city is experiencing the consequences of rising temperatures and changing weather patterns. Here are some key insights into the impact of climate change on Kolkata’s temperature:

1. Rising Temperatures

Studies have shown that Kolkata’s average temperature has been increasing over the years. The rise in temperatures can be attributed to various factors, including urbanization, deforestation, and greenhouse gas emissions. The increasing heat poses health risks, particularly for vulnerable populations such as the elderly and children.

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2. Changing Rainfall Patterns

Climate change has also led to changes in Kolkata’s rainfall patterns. While the city receives a significant amount of rainfall during the monsoon season, there has been a shift in the timing and intensity of rainfall. This can have implications for agriculture, water availability, and overall ecosystem health.

3. Sea Level Rise

Kolkata is located on the eastern coast of India, making it vulnerable to sea-level rise. As global temperatures increase, glaciers melt, and seawater expands, the sea level rises, posing a threat to coastal cities like Kolkata. The city’s authorities need to develop robust adaptation strategies to protect vulnerable coastal areas from the impacts of sea-level rise.

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Q&A

1. How hot does Kolkata get in summer?

Kolkata experiences scorching temperatures during the summer months, with the mercury often soaring above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit).

2. What is the average annual rainfall in Kolkata?

Kolkata receives an average annual rainfall of around 1,582 millimeters (62.28 inches).

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3. Does Kolkata experience cyclones?

Yes, Kolkata is located in a region prone to cyclones, particularly during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods.

4. How does climate change affect Kolkata’s temperature?

Climate change has led to rising temperatures in Kolkata, posing health risks and impacting rainfall patterns. Sea-level rise also poses a threat to the city’s coastal areas.

5. What can be done to mitigate the impact of extreme weather events in Kolkata?

To mitigate the impact of extreme weather events, Kolkata’s authorities need to invest in robust infrastructure, spread awareness, and develop adaptation strategies to protect vulnerable areas.

Summary

Kolkata’s temperature exhibits distinct seasonal variations, with scorching summers, pleasant autumns, mild winters, and a monsoon season characterized by heavy rainfall. The city is no stranger to extreme weather events, including cyclones, heatwaves, and flooding. Climate change is exacerbating these challenges

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