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The Temperature of Kolkata: A Comprehensive Guide

kolkata temperature

kolkata temperature

Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital city of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is a vibrant and bustling metropolis that is known for its rich cultural heritage, historical landmarks, and mouth-watering cuisine. However, one aspect of Kolkata that often goes unnoticed is its unique climate and temperature patterns. In this article, we will delve into the temperature of Kolkata, exploring its seasonal variations, extreme weather events, and the impact of climate change. So, let’s dive in and uncover the fascinating world of Kolkata’s temperature!

The Seasonal Temperature Variations in Kolkata

Kolkata experiences a tropical wet-and-dry climate, characterized by hot and humid summers and mild winters. The city is located in the Gangetic plain, which influences its temperature patterns. Here is a breakdown of the seasonal temperature variations in Kolkata:

Summer (March to May)

Summers in Kolkata are notoriously hot and humid, with temperatures often soaring above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit). The city experiences scorching heatwaves during this period, making it uncomfortable for residents and visitors alike. The humidity levels also remain high, adding to the discomfort. It is advisable to stay hydrated and seek shade or air-conditioned spaces during the peak summer months.

Monsoon (June to September)

The monsoon season brings relief from the sweltering heat of summer. Kolkata receives a significant amount of rainfall during this period, with the monsoon winds bringing moisture from the Bay of Bengal. The average rainfall in Kolkata during the monsoon season is around 1,500 millimeters (59 inches). The temperature during this season ranges from 25 to 35 degrees Celsius (77 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit). The cityscape transforms into a lush green paradise, and the rain showers provide respite from the scorching heat.

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Autumn (October to November)

Autumn in Kolkata is characterized by pleasant weather, with temperatures ranging from 20 to 30 degrees Celsius (68 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit). The humidity levels decrease, and the city experiences clear skies and gentle breezes. This is considered an ideal time to visit Kolkata, as the weather is neither too hot nor too cold.

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Winter (December to February)

Winters in Kolkata are mild and comfortable, with temperatures ranging from 12 to 25 degrees Celsius (54 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit). The city experiences cool and dry weather during this period, making it a popular time for outdoor activities and festivals. However, it is advisable to carry a light jacket or sweater, especially during the evenings, as the temperature can drop further.

Extreme Weather Events in Kolkata

While Kolkata generally experiences a predictable climate, it is not immune to extreme weather events. Here are some notable instances of extreme weather in Kolkata:

Cyclones

Kolkata is located in a region prone to cyclones, particularly during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Cyclone Amphan, which struck Kolkata in May 2020, was one of the most devastating cyclones in recent history. It caused widespread destruction, with strong winds and heavy rainfall leading to flooding and power outages. The city is constantly working on improving its infrastructure and disaster management systems to mitigate the impact of such cyclones.

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Heatwaves

Heatwaves are a common occurrence in Kolkata during the summer months. In recent years, the frequency and intensity of heatwaves have increased due to climate change. These extreme heat events pose a significant risk to public health, particularly for vulnerable populations such as the elderly and children. It is crucial to raise awareness about heatwave preparedness and implement measures to reduce the urban heat island effect in the city.

The Impact of Climate Change on Kolkata’s Temperature

Like many other cities around the world, Kolkata is experiencing the effects of climate change. Rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and increased frequency of extreme weather events are some of the impacts observed in the city. Here are a few ways in which climate change is affecting Kolkata’s temperature:

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Temperature Rise

Over the past few decades, Kolkata has witnessed a gradual increase in average temperatures. This rise in temperature is attributed to greenhouse gas emissions and urbanization. The city’s concrete jungle and lack of green spaces contribute to the urban heat island effect, where the temperature in urban areas is significantly higher than in surrounding rural areas. This phenomenon exacerbates the already high temperatures during the summer months.

Changing Rainfall Patterns

Climate change has also led to changes in Kolkata’s rainfall patterns. The city is experiencing more intense rainfall events, leading to localized flooding and waterlogging. On the other hand, there is a decrease in the number of rainy days, resulting in longer dry spells. These changes in rainfall patterns have implications for agriculture, water resources, and overall urban planning.

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Q&A

1. What is the hottest month in Kolkata?

The hottest month in Kolkata is usually May, with temperatures often exceeding 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit).

2. Does Kolkata experience snowfall?

No, Kolkata does not experience snowfall. The city’s climate is tropical, and snowfall is extremely rare in this region.

3. How does Kolkata’s temperature compare to other Indian cities?

Kolkata’s temperature is generally higher compared to cities in northern India, such as Delhi and Jaipur. The proximity to the Bay of Bengal and the city’s geographical location contribute to its relatively higher temperatures.

4. Are there any precautions to take during heatwaves in Kolkata?

During heatwaves, it is essential to stay hydrated, avoid direct exposure to the sun, and seek shelter in air-conditioned or cool spaces. Wearing light and loose-fitting clothing can also help in managing the heat.

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5. How is Kolkata adapting to climate change?

Kolkata is taking several measures to adapt to climate change. These include improving drainage systems to mitigate flooding, promoting rooftop gardens and green spaces to reduce the urban heat island effect, and raising awareness about climate change and its impacts.

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Summary

Kolkata’s temperature exhibits distinct seasonal variations, with hot and humid summers, pleasant autumns, mild winters, and a monsoon season characterized by heavy rainfall. The city is no stranger to extreme weather events, such as cyclones and heatwaves, which pose challenges to its residents. Additionally, climate change is impacting Kolkata’s temperature, leading to rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, and increased vulnerability to extreme weather events. It is crucial for the city to adapt to these changes and implement sustainable measures to mitigate the impacts of climate change. By understanding and addressing these temperature dynamics, Kolkata can strive towards a more resilient and climate-conscious future.</

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