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The Temperature of Kolkata: A Comprehensive Guide

kolkata temperature

kolkata temperature

Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital city of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is a vibrant and bustling metropolis that is known for its rich cultural heritage, historical landmarks, and mouth-watering cuisine. However, one aspect of Kolkata that often goes unnoticed is its unique climate and temperature patterns. In this article, we will delve into the temperature of Kolkata, exploring its seasonal variations, extreme weather events, and the impact of climate change. So, let’s dive in and uncover the fascinating world of Kolkata’s temperature!

The Seasonal Temperature Variations in Kolkata

Kolkata experiences a tropical wet-and-dry climate, characterized by hot and humid summers and mild winters. The city is located in the Gangetic plain, which influences its temperature patterns. Here is a breakdown of the seasonal temperature variations in Kolkata:

Summer (March to May)

Summers in Kolkata are notoriously hot and humid, with temperatures often soaring above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit). The city experiences scorching heatwaves during this period, making it uncomfortable for residents and visitors alike. The humidity levels also remain high, adding to the discomfort. It is advisable to stay hydrated and seek shade or air-conditioned spaces during the peak summer months.

Monsoon (June to September)

The monsoon season brings relief from the sweltering heat of summer. Kolkata receives a significant amount of rainfall during this period, with the monsoon winds bringing moisture from the Bay of Bengal. The average rainfall in Kolkata during the monsoon season is around 1,500 millimeters (59 inches). The temperature drops slightly during this time, ranging between 25 to 35 degrees Celsius (77 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit). However, the humidity levels remain high, making it feel warmer than it actually is.

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Autumn (October to November)

Autumn in Kolkata is a pleasant season, with temperatures ranging between 20 to 30 degrees Celsius (68 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit). The humidity levels decrease, and the city experiences clear skies and comfortable weather. This is a popular time for outdoor activities and festivals in Kolkata, such as Durga Puja, which is celebrated with great fervor and enthusiasm.

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Winter (December to February)

Winters in Kolkata are mild and enjoyable, with temperatures ranging between 12 to 25 degrees Celsius (54 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit). The city experiences cool and dry weather during this period, making it an ideal time to explore the city’s attractions. However, it is advisable to carry a light jacket or sweater, especially during the evenings, as the temperature can drop further.

Extreme Weather Events in Kolkata

While Kolkata generally experiences a predictable climate, it is not immune to extreme weather events. Here are some notable instances of extreme weather in Kolkata:

Cyclones

Kolkata is located in a region prone to cyclones, particularly during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Cyclone Amphan, which struck Kolkata in May 2020, was one of the most devastating cyclones in recent history. It caused widespread destruction, including damage to infrastructure, uprooting of trees, and flooding in low-lying areas. The cyclone served as a wake-up call for the city to strengthen its disaster preparedness and climate resilience.

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Heatwaves

Heatwaves are a common occurrence in Kolkata, especially during the summer months. In recent years, the frequency and intensity of heatwaves have increased due to climate change. These extreme heat events pose a significant risk to public health, particularly for vulnerable populations such as the elderly and those with pre-existing medical conditions. It is crucial for the city to implement measures to mitigate the impact of heatwaves, including the provision of cooling centers and public awareness campaigns.

The Impact of Climate Change on Kolkata’s Temperature

Like many other cities around the world, Kolkata is experiencing the effects of climate change. Rising global temperatures, melting glaciers, and changing weather patterns are all contributing to the changing climate in Kolkata. Here are some key impacts of climate change on Kolkata’s temperature:

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Increased Average Temperature

Over the past few decades, Kolkata has witnessed a gradual increase in its average temperature. This rise in temperature is primarily attributed to greenhouse gas emissions and the urban heat island effect. The urban heat island effect occurs when urban areas, such as Kolkata, experience higher temperatures compared to surrounding rural areas due to human activities and the built environment. It is essential for the city to adopt sustainable urban planning strategies and promote green spaces to mitigate the urban heat island effect.

Changing Rainfall Patterns

Climate change is also affecting the rainfall patterns in Kolkata. While the city receives a significant amount of rainfall during the monsoon season, there has been a noticeable shift in the timing and intensity of rainfall. Delayed or erratic monsoons can have adverse effects on agriculture, water availability, and overall ecosystem health. It is crucial for the city to invest in climate-resilient infrastructure and water management systems to adapt to these changing rainfall patterns.

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Q&A

1. How hot does Kolkata get during the summer?

Kolkata experiences scorching summers, with temperatures often exceeding 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit).

2. What is the average rainfall in Kolkata during the monsoon season?

The average rainfall in Kolkata during the monsoon season is around 1,500 millimeters (59 inches).

3. What is the best time to visit Kolkata?

The best time to visit Kolkata is during the winter months (December to February) when the weather is mild and enjoyable.

4. How does climate change affect Kolkata’s temperature?

Climate change is causing an increase in Kolkata’s average temperature and changing rainfall patterns, which can have significant impacts on the city’s environment and residents.

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5. What are some measures Kolkata can take to mitigate the impact of extreme weather events?

Kolkata can implement measures such as strengthening disaster preparedness, improving infrastructure resilience, promoting green spaces, and raising public awareness about the risks of extreme weather events.

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Summary

Kolkata’s temperature is characterized by hot and humid summers, mild winters, and a significant amount of rainfall during the monsoon season. The city experiences extreme weather events such as cyclones and heatwaves, which pose risks to public health and infrastructure. Climate change is exacerbating these risks, leading to increased average temperatures and changing rainfall patterns. To adapt to these challenges, Kolkata needs to invest in climate-resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable urban planning, and raise awareness about the importance of climate change mitigation and adaptation. By taking these steps, Kolkata can ensure a more sustainable and resilient future for its residents.</

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