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The Temperature of Kolkata: A Comprehensive Guide

kolkata temperature

kolkata temperature

Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital city of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is a vibrant and bustling metropolis that is known for its rich cultural heritage, historical landmarks, and mouth-watering cuisine. However, one aspect of Kolkata that often goes unnoticed is its unique climate and temperature patterns. In this article, we will delve into the temperature of Kolkata, exploring its seasonal variations, extreme weather events, and the impact of climate change. So, let’s dive in and uncover the fascinating world of Kolkata’s temperature!

The Seasonal Temperature Variations in Kolkata

Kolkata experiences a tropical wet-and-dry climate, characterized by hot and humid summers and mild winters. The city is located in the Gangetic plain, which influences its temperature patterns. Here is a breakdown of the seasonal temperature variations in Kolkata:

Summer (March to May)

Summers in Kolkata are notoriously hot and humid, with temperatures often soaring above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit). The city experiences scorching heatwaves during this period, making it uncomfortable for residents and visitors alike. The humidity levels also remain high, adding to the discomfort. It is advisable to stay hydrated and seek shade or air-conditioned spaces during the peak summer months.

Monsoon (June to September)

The monsoon season brings relief from the sweltering heat of summer. Kolkata receives a significant amount of rainfall during this period, with the monsoon winds bringing moisture from the Bay of Bengal. The average rainfall in Kolkata during the monsoon season is around 1,500 millimeters (59 inches). The temperature during this season ranges from 25 to 35 degrees Celsius (77 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit). The city often experiences heavy downpours and occasional thunderstorms, which can lead to waterlogging in certain areas.

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Autumn (October to November)

Autumn in Kolkata is characterized by pleasant weather, with temperatures ranging from 20 to 30 degrees Celsius (68 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit). The humidity levels decrease, and the city experiences clear skies and gentle breezes. This is considered an ideal time to visit Kolkata, as the weather is comfortable for outdoor activities and sightseeing.

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Winter (December to February)

Winters in Kolkata are mild and dry, with temperatures ranging from 10 to 20 degrees Celsius (50 to 68 degrees Fahrenheit). While the city does not experience extreme cold, the temperature drop can be noticeable, especially during the early morning and late evening hours. It is advisable to carry a light jacket or sweater during this season. The winter months are also known for festivals like Durga Puja and Christmas, which add to the festive spirit of the city.

Extreme Weather Events in Kolkata

While Kolkata generally experiences a predictable climate, it is not immune to extreme weather events. Here are some notable instances of extreme weather in Kolkata:

Cyclones

Kolkata is located in a region prone to cyclones, especially during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Cyclone Amphan, which struck Kolkata in May 2020, was one of the most devastating cyclones in recent history. It caused widespread destruction, including uprooted trees, damaged infrastructure, and power outages. The cyclone served as a wake-up call for the city to strengthen its disaster preparedness and climate resilience.

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Heatwaves

Heatwaves are a recurring phenomenon in Kolkata, particularly during the summer months. In recent years, the frequency and intensity of heatwaves have increased due to climate change. These extreme heat events pose a significant risk to public health, especially for vulnerable populations such as the elderly and those with pre-existing medical conditions. It is crucial for the city to implement measures to mitigate the impact of heatwaves, including the provision of cooling centers and public awareness campaigns.

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The Impact of Climate Change on Kolkata’s Temperature

Like many other cities around the world, Kolkata is grappling with the effects of climate change. Rising global temperatures, melting glaciers, and changing weather patterns are all contributing to the changing climate of the city. Here are some key ways in which climate change is impacting Kolkata’s temperature:

Increased Average Temperature

Over the past few decades, Kolkata has witnessed a gradual increase in its average temperature. This rise in temperature is primarily attributed to greenhouse gas emissions and the urban heat island effect. The urban heat island effect occurs when urban areas experience higher temperatures compared to surrounding rural areas due to human activities and the built environment. It is essential for the city to adopt sustainable urban planning strategies and promote green spaces to mitigate the urban heat island effect.

Changing Rainfall Patterns

Climate change is also altering the rainfall patterns in Kolkata. While the city receives a significant amount of rainfall during the monsoon season, there has been an increase in the frequency of heavy downpours and intense rainfall events. This can lead to flooding and waterlogging, causing significant disruptions to daily life and infrastructure. The city needs to invest in robust drainage systems and flood management strategies to adapt to these changing rainfall patterns.

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Rising Sea Levels

Kolkata is located on the eastern coast of India, making it vulnerable to rising sea levels. As global temperatures continue to rise, glaciers and ice caps melt, causing sea levels to rise. This poses a threat to coastal cities like Kolkata, increasing the risk of storm surges and coastal erosion. The city must develop coastal protection measures and implement sustainable coastal zone management practices to safeguard its residents and infrastructure.

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Q&A

1. How hot does Kolkata get in the summer?

Kolkata experiences scorching summers, with temperatures often exceeding 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit). The high humidity levels make it feel even hotter, adding to the discomfort.

2. Does Kolkata experience snowfall?

No, Kolkata does not experience snowfall. The city’s winter temperatures are mild, with the mercury rarely dropping below 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit).

3. What is the best time to visit Kolkata?

The best time to visit Kolkata is during the autumn season, from October to November. The weather during this period is pleasant, with comfortable temperatures and clear skies.

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4. How does climate change affect Kolkata’s temperature?

Climate change is causing an increase in Kolkata’s average temperature, altering rainfall patterns, and raising sea levels. These changes have significant implications for the city’s residents, infrastructure, and overall climate resilience.

5. What measures are being taken to address climate change in Kolkata?

Kolkata has taken several measures to address climate change, including the promotion of renewable energy, the implementation of sustainable urban planning strategies, and the development of climate resilience plans. However

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