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The Temperature of Kolkata: A Comprehensive Guide

kolkata temperature

kolkata temperature

Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta, is the capital city of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is a vibrant and bustling metropolis that is known for its rich cultural heritage, historical landmarks, and mouth-watering cuisine. However, one aspect of Kolkata that often goes unnoticed is its unique climate and temperature patterns. In this article, we will delve into the temperature of Kolkata, exploring its seasonal variations, extreme weather events, and the impact of climate change. So, let’s dive in and uncover the fascinating world of Kolkata’s temperature!

The Seasonal Temperature Variations in Kolkata

Kolkata experiences a tropical wet-and-dry climate, characterized by hot and humid summers and mild winters. The city is located in the Gangetic plain, which influences its temperature patterns. Here is a breakdown of the seasonal temperature variations in Kolkata:

Summer (March to May)

Summers in Kolkata are notoriously hot and humid, with temperatures often soaring above 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit). The city experiences scorching heatwaves during this period, making it uncomfortable for residents and visitors alike. The humidity levels also remain high, adding to the discomfort. It is advisable to stay hydrated and seek shade or air-conditioned spaces during the peak summer months.

Monsoon (June to September)

The monsoon season brings relief from the sweltering heat of summer. Kolkata receives a significant amount of rainfall during this period, with the monsoon winds bringing moisture from the Bay of Bengal. The average rainfall in Kolkata during the monsoon season is around 1,500 millimeters (59 inches). The temperature during this season ranges from 25 to 35 degrees Celsius (77 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit). The city often experiences heavy downpours and occasional thunderstorms, which can lead to waterlogging in certain areas.

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Autumn (October to November)

Autumn in Kolkata is characterized by pleasant weather, with temperatures ranging from 20 to 30 degrees Celsius (68 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit). The humidity levels decrease, and the city experiences clear skies and gentle breezes. This is considered an ideal time to visit Kolkata, as the weather is comfortable for outdoor activities and sightseeing.

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Winter (December to February)

Winters in Kolkata are mild and dry, with temperatures ranging from 12 to 25 degrees Celsius (54 to 77 degrees Fahrenheit). While the city does not experience extreme cold, the temperature drop can be noticeable, especially during the early morning and late evening hours. It is advisable to carry a light jacket or sweater during this season. The winter months are also known for festivals like Christmas and New Year, which add to the festive spirit of the city.

Extreme Weather Events in Kolkata

While Kolkata generally experiences a predictable climate, it is not immune to extreme weather events. Here are some notable instances of extreme weather in Kolkata:

Cyclones

Kolkata is located in a region prone to cyclones, especially during the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods. Cyclone Amphan, which struck Kolkata in May 2020, was one of the most devastating cyclones in recent history. It caused widespread destruction, including uprooted trees, damaged infrastructure, and power outages. The cyclone served as a wake-up call for the city to strengthen its disaster preparedness and climate resilience.

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Heatwaves

Heatwaves are a recurring phenomenon in Kolkata, particularly during the summer months. In recent years, the frequency and intensity of heatwaves have increased due to climate change. These extreme heat events pose a significant risk to public health, especially for vulnerable populations such as the elderly and those with pre-existing medical conditions. It is crucial for the city to implement measures to mitigate the impact of heatwaves, including the provision of cooling centers and public awareness campaigns.

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The Impact of Climate Change on Kolkata’s Temperature

Like many other cities around the world, Kolkata is grappling with the effects of climate change. Rising global temperatures and changing weather patterns have a direct impact on the city’s temperature. Here are some key ways in which climate change is influencing Kolkata’s temperature:

Increased Average Temperature

Over the past few decades, Kolkata has witnessed a gradual increase in its average temperature. This rise can be attributed to the overall warming of the planet due to greenhouse gas emissions. The increased temperature has implications for public health, agriculture, and energy consumption. It is essential for the city to adapt to these changes and implement strategies to mitigate the heat island effect.

Changing Rainfall Patterns

Climate change is also altering the rainfall patterns in Kolkata. While the city receives a significant amount of rainfall during the monsoon season, there is a growing concern about the erratic nature of rainfall. Intense downpours and prolonged dry spells can have adverse effects on agriculture, water resources, and urban infrastructure. It is crucial for the city to invest in sustainable water management practices and flood mitigation measures.

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Rising Sea Levels

Kolkata is located on the eastern coast of India, making it vulnerable to rising sea levels. As global warming continues, the melting of polar ice caps and thermal expansion of seawater contribute to the rise in sea levels. This poses a threat to coastal cities like Kolkata, increasing the risk of flooding and erosion. The city needs to develop robust coastal protection measures and promote sustainable urban planning to address this challenge.

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Q&A

1. What is the hottest month in Kolkata?

The hottest month in Kolkata is usually May, with temperatures often exceeding 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit).

2. Does Kolkata experience snowfall?

No, Kolkata does not experience snowfall. The city’s climate is tropical, and the temperatures rarely drop low enough for snow to form.

3. How does the monsoon season affect Kolkata?

The monsoon season brings relief from the summer heat, but it also leads to heavy rainfall and occasional flooding in certain areas of Kolkata.

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4. What measures can be taken to mitigate the impact of heatwaves in Kolkata?

To mitigate the impact of heatwaves, Kolkata can implement measures such as creating cooling centers, increasing green spaces, promoting energy-efficient buildings, and raising public awareness about heat-related health risks.

5. How is Kolkata adapting to the effects of climate change?

Kolkata is taking steps to adapt to the effects of climate change by implementing sustainable urban planning, investing in renewable energy sources, improving water management practices, and strengthening disaster preparedness.

Summary

Kolkata’s temperature is influenced by its tropical wet-and-dry climate, characterized by hot summers and mild winters. The city experiences extreme weather events such as cyclones and

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